"Do you know ..." is an educational series for patients and their families.

Active shoulder range of motion

The purpose of these exercises is to stretch your child's shoulder muscles rather than to increase shoulder strength.

Ankle foot orthosis (AFO)

Ankle foot orthosis (AFO) is a brace, usually made of plastic, that provides correction, support or protection.


Learning to speak is a complicated process. The process of making speech sounds is called articulation.

Avascular necrosis

Avascular Necrosis (AVN) is a disease resulting from the temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to the bone.


It is important to learn about balance, because we are all just one step away from a fall.

Brain crew

The brain is made up of several parts, and each part controls a different body function.

Children and hearing aids

Infants as early as 4 weeks old can be fitted with amplification such as hearing aids and assistive devices.

Children learn through play

Play is critical to the healthy growth and development of children.

Continuous passive motion (CPM)

A Continuous Passive Motion (CPM) device maintains movement of a joint after limb sparing surgery.

Daily care for behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids

Instructions and tips for cleaning and taking care of behind-the-ear hearing aids.

Daily care for in-the-ear (ITE) hearing aids

Instructions and tips for cleaning and taking care of in-the-ear hearing aids.


A brain tumor, stroke, or other brain injury can affect the muscles used in breathing, eating, and talking. It can cause these muscles to become weak, move slowly, or not move at all. This includes the muscles that work the mouth, face, jaw, palate, and vocal cords. The result can be a speech problem called dysarthria.

Effects of hearing loss

Hearing loss affects children in four important ways.

Exercise and general fitness

It is never too late or too early to start improving your health.

Great books for children 5 to 8 years old

At this age, children are beginning readers. They are just starting to read by themselves. They still enjoy picture books but want to move on to books that are more grown-up.

Great books for children 8 to 12 years old

Children ages 8-12 love "chapter books." Book series are good choices for this age group. Sometimes your child will want to read alone. Other times he will still like you to read to him.

Great books for infants and toddlers

Lap-time reading fosters feelings of warmth and security. It also expands your child's view of the world and his vocabulary (the number of words he knows).

Great books for preschoolers

As a parent, you are your child's first and most influential teacher. From a very early age, reading together is one of the best ways to share time with your child.

Great books for young adults

Teenagers are very busy people. They must juggle full academic loads, extra curricular activities, plus many social ties that typify teen years. It is hard to find time to read.

Hamstring flexibility

Children treated for cancer often have tightness in the big group of muscles on the back of the thigh -- the hamstrings.

Hearing aid myths and facts

Quick fact sheet dispels common myths about hearing aids.

Hearing aids for teens and adults

Information and recommendations on finding the right hearing aid.

Hip precautions

Hip precautions are positions and movements that should be avoided after hip surgery.

How to use a cane

Canes are generally used when a little support is needed for balance and weakness.

How to use a walker

Walkers are more stable than crutches or canes. A walker will be recommended if you need a lot of support.

How to use crutches

Instructions on the use and benefits of crutches.

How to wear and care for a splint

Wearing a hand splint helps your child use his hands and arms better. The type of splint and when it needs to be worn depends on your child’s needs. Some children will wear the splint only when they are awake and active. Others may wear a splint only at night. Splints can be soft and flexible or hard and rigid.

Improving fine motor skills

If your child’s hands and fingers are weak, he can have problems with fine motor skills, like writing. Making the muscles in your child’s hands stronger will help improve motor skills and control how his hands move.

Improving handwriting skills

The ability to write clearly is a key part of how well your child does in school. Writing lets us share our thoughts and ideas with others. Besides helping your child do well in school, good handwriting will help them do well in life.

Is your child's backpack making the grade?

When properly worn, a backpack is supported by the strongest muscles in the body.

Language development - 1 to 2 Years

Stages of development for children ages 1 to 2 years.

Language development - 2 to 3 years

Stages of development for children ages 2 to 3 years.

Language development - 3 to 4 years

Stages of development for children ages 3 to 4 years.

Language development - 4 to 5 years

Stages of development for children ages 4 to 5 years.

Language development - birth to 1 year

Stages of language development for children birth to 1 year.

Living with one eye

A young child who grows up with only one eye will never know the difference. He will develop and learn along with his age group. Older children and adults who lose vision in one eye will need some time to adjust.

Medication effects on hearing

Commonly used medications--both over-the-counter and prescribed--can damage hearing or aggravate an existing problem.

Middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss

Description of ear structure and possible causes of hearing loss.

Modified barium swallow test

This test, sometimes called the "cookie swallow" test, helps determine if your child has trouble swallowing.

Neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is the kind of pain you feel when nerves are damaged or irritated.

Noise and hearing loss

Describes how noise causes hearing loss and ways to protect yourself.

Noisy toys, dangerous play

Some toys are so loud that they can cause hearing damage in children.

One-handed shoe tying

Tying your shoes with one hand may be hard at first, but using the steps on this handout will help you re-learn this daily task.

Passive shoulder range of motion

Passive range of motion simply means that the body part (arm, leg) is moved by someone else to stretch the muscles. The patient does not help with this movement at all.

Peripheral neuropathy

Damage to nerves may cause tingling, numbness or weakness in the hands and feet after treatment with certain chemotherapy drugs.

Physical therapy after leg surgery

When your child comes to the hospital for surgery, bring any knee braces, crutches, and anything else the physical therapist provided.

Physical therapy for below knee tumor surgery

Your child may be fitted with a Bledsoe™ knee brace that he should use when walking and sleeping. This will help keep his leg from fracturing.

Preparing your child to read

Research shows that there are things that you can do with your child at home from an early age to help him become a successful reader.

Rehab for posterior fossa syndrome

The posterior fossa is an area near the back side of the base of the skull that contains parts of the brain called the brainstem and the cerebellum. If your child has surgery in this area, he may develop posterior fossa syndrome. The symptoms include problems with speech and language, motor skills, and mood changes. The Rehabilitation Services team may be able to help your child with some of these symptoms.

Rehabilitation Services

Rehabilitation Services is here to help you and your child cope with the effects of illness, including any side effects from treatment. Our services are designed to help your child do everyday activities as well as possible.

Rehabilitation and transplant

The transplant process is physically demanding. There are steps however that you can take to help your child maintain strength, flexibility, and endurance throughout treatment.

Resources for people with hearing loss

A list of resources for people with hearing loss.

Sensorineural hearing loss

Sensorineural hearing loss is caused when something damages the inner ear, the auditory (hearing) nerve, or the parts of the brain that process sound.

Tracheostomy and a Passy-Muir valve

Speech is made by air that moves up from the lungs through the vocal cords. With a tracheostomy (trach), most of the air bypasses the vocal cords and exits through the trach tube. This alters or lessens the person’s ability to create speech.

Unilateral hearing loss

When hearing is impaired in only one ear, this is called unilateral hearing loss.

Use of TENS for pain relief

A Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) unit is a small, battery-operated device about the size of a beeper.

Voice disorders

What do voice disorders sound like? What causes voice disorders? How are voice disorders treated?

What is occupational therapy?

At any age, we all have many occupations (tasks) that fill our daily routine. The lives of children are filled with basic skills such as eating, playing, and interacting well with family and friends.

When hands need help

At first, dressing yourself, bathing, and eating might seem hard or impossible with one hand or with weak hands. Many times a few simple changes make these tasks easier...


Forming sentences is a complex process for anyone. Everyone occasionally has trouble finding the right word.

Yoga for kids

All ages benefit from yoga. Postures incorporated in yoga are derived from movements that children naturally do.