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Allogeneic stem cell transplant / bone marrow transplant is used to treat a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Malignant diseases would include selected leukemias and lymphomas or refractory solid tumors. Non-malignant diseases would include bone marrow failure disorders, selected genetic diseases and sickle cell disease.
These include identical twins (syngeneic), HLA-matched siblings, matched unrelated donors, partially matched family members, related umbilical cord blood and unrelated umbilical cord blood. Stem cells may be obtained by bone marrow harvest, collection of peripheral blood or collection of placental cord blood at birth.
The survival rates differ by diagnosis, donor type, and disease status.
This form of treatment generally requires pre-transplant conditioning therapy with high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and immunosuppressive antibodies. This is followed by infusion of the stem cells via a central venous catheter. Patients who have received a stem cell transplant / bone marrow transplant then require careful monitoring for infection, blood product support, antibiotic therapy, analysis of donor cell engraftment and monitoring of immune reconstitution.
Allogeneic stem cell transplant / bone marrow transplant using non matched sibling donors is complicated by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) among other problems. This is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening complication that occurs in 50-100 percent of patients receiving matched unrelated or partially matched family member transplants. Investigators at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital are using new techniques to purify blood stem cells in an attempt to make transplantation safer by reducing GVHD. These investigators are also studying transplantation tolerance and techniques to enhance immune recovery after stem cell transplant / bone marrow transplant.
The St. Jude Web site is designed for educational purposes only and is not engaged in rendering medical advice or professional services. The information provided through this site should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease. It is not a substitute for professional care. If you have or suspect you may have a health problem, you should consult your health care provider.