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Ranganatha Sitaram, ME, PhD
Ranganatha Sitaram, ME, PhD

Ranganatha Sitaram, ME, PhD

Member, St. Jude Faculty

  • Director, Multimodal Functional Brain Imaging



BE - Mysore University, India
ME - PSG College of Engineering, India
PhD - University of Tuebingen, Germany              
Senior Research Fellow - Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India
Postdoctoral Researcher – University of Tuebingen, Germany
Postdoctoral Researcher – Max Planck Institute of Biological Cybernetics, Germany

Honors and Awards

  • 2018-2021 – Indian Prime Minister's Special Award (Vajra) for Visiting Professorship in Neuroscience.
  • 2018-2021 – Visiting Scientist Position at the Wyss Center for Neuro & Bio Engineering, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 2016 BrainChile Prize for Neurorehab Technologies, a technology spinoff company.
  • 2017 – Best Research Award: "Neural mechanism of brain self-regulation," International Conference on Real-time Functional Imaging and Neurofeedback.
  • 2009-2012 - Indian President’s Award of Visiting Professorship in Neuroscience and Neuroimaging.
  • 2002 -  Infocomm Development Authority (Singapore) Award for the development of a suite of products and services based on intelligent wireless technology.

Research Interests

  • Multimodal Neuroimaging
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neuromodulation and Neurostimulation
  • Neurorehabilitation
  • Neurofeedback
  • Brain-Machine Interfaces
  • Scientific Study of Conscious and Non-Conscious Processes
  • Artificial Intelligence

Selected Publications

Sitaram Google Citations

Vargas G, Araya D, Sepulveda P, Rodriguez-Fernandez M, Friston KJ, Sitaram R, El-Deredy W. Self-regulation learning as active inference: dynamic causal modeling of an fMRI neurofeedback task. Front Neurosci Aug 15;17:1212549, 2023. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2023.1212549

Kim S, da Rocha JLD, Niels Birbaumer N, Sitaram R. Self-regulation of the posterior-frontal brain activity with real-time fMRI neurofeedback to influence conscious perception, 24 May 2023, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square

Sánchez-Corzo A, Baum DM, Irani M, Hinrichs S, Reisenegger R, Whitaker GA, Born J, Klinzing JG, Sitaram R. Odor cueing of declarative memories during sleep enhances coordinated spindles and slow oscillations bioRxiv 2023.02.10.527339; doi:

Sánchez-Corzo A, Baum DM, Irani M, Hinrichs S, Reisenegger R, Whitaker GA, Born J, Klinzing JG, Sitaram R. Neural signatures of declarative memory cueing using odors during sleep. bioRxiv preprint Feb 12;339v2, 2023.

Shibu CJ, Sreedharan S, Arun KM, Kesavadas C, Sitaram R. Explainable Artificial Intelligence Model to Predict Brain States from fNIRS Signals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16:1029784, 2022. PMID: 3671783.

Buyukturkoglu K, Vergara C, Fuentealba V, Tozlu C, Dahan JB, Carroll BE, Kuceyeski A, Riley CS, Sumowski JF, Oliva CG, Sitaram R, Guevara P, Leavitt VM. Machine learning to investigate superficial white matter integrity in early multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging Jan;32(1):36-47, 2022. doi: 10.1111/jon.12934

Vargas P, Sitaram R, Sepúlveda P, Montalba C, Rana M, Torres R, Tejos C, Ruiz S. Weighted neurofeedback facilitates greater self-regulation of functional connectivity between the primary motor area and cerebellum. J Neural Eng Oct 14;18(5), 2021. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/ac2b7e

Ravindran A, Rieke JD, Zapata JDA, White KD, Matarasso A, Yusufali MM, Rana M, Gunduz A, Modarres M, Sitaram R, Daly JJ. Four methods of brain pattern analyses of fMRI signals associated with wrist extension versus wrist flexion studied for potential use in future motor learning BCI. PLoS One Aug 17;16(8):e0254338, 2021. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254338. PMID: 34403422; PMCID: PMC8370644

Valenzuela F, Rana M, Sitaram R, Uribe S, Eblen-Zajjur A. Non-Invasive Functional Evaluation of the Human Spinal Cord by Assessing the Peri-Spinal Neurovascular Network with Near Infrared Spectroscopy. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 29:2312-2321, 2021. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2021.3123587

Bhutada AS, Sepúlveda P, Torres R, Ossandón T, Ruiz S, Sitaram R. Semi-Automated and Direct Localization and Labeling of EEG Electrodes Using MR Structural Images for Simultaneous fMRI-EEG. Front Neurosci 14:558981, 2020. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2020.558981. PMID: 33414699

Kajal DS, Fioravanti C, Elshahabi A, Ruiz S, Sitaram R, Braun C. Involvement of top-down networks in the perception of facial emotions: a magnetoencephalographic investigation. Neuroimage Jun 22:117075,2020. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117075. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32585348

Dalboni da Rocha JL, Bramati I, Coutinho G, Tovar Moll F, Sitaram R. Fractional Anisotropy changes in Parahippocampal Cingulum due to Alzheimer's Disease. Sci Rep Feb 14;10(1):2660, 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-59327-2. PMID: 32060334

Rana M, Ruiz S, Corzo AS, Muehleck A, Eck S, Salinas C, Zamorano F, Silva C, Rea M, Batra A, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R. Use of Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Neurofeedback to Downregulate Insular Cortex in Nicotine-Addicted Smokers. J Vis Exp Jun 10;(160), 2020. doi: 10.3791/59441. PMID: 32597838

Ros T, Enriquez-Geppert S, Zotev V, Young KD, Wood G, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Wan F, Vuilleumier P, Vialatte F, Van De Ville D, Todder D, Surmeli T, Sulzer JS, Strehl U, Sterman MB, Steiner NJ, Sorger B, Soekadar SR, Sitaram R, Sherlin LH, Schönenberg M, Scharnowski F, Schabus M, Rubia K, Rosa A, Reiner M, Pineda JA, Paret C, Ossadtchi A, Nicholson AA, Nan W, Minguez J, Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Mehler DMA, Lührs M, Lubar J, Lotte F, Linden DEJ, Lewis-Peacock JA, Lebedev MA, Lanius RA, Kübler A, Kranczioch C, Koush Y, Konicar L, Kohl SH, Kober SE, Klados MA, Jeunet C, Janssen TWP, Huster RJ, Hoedlmoser K, Hirshberg LM, Heunis S, Hendler T, Hampson M, Guggisberg AG, Guggenberger R, Gruzelier JH, Göbel RW, Gninenko N, Gharabaghi A, Frewen P, Fovet T, Fernández T, Escolano C, Ehlis AC, Drechsler R, Christopher deCharms R, Debener S, De Ridder D, Davelaar EJ, Congedo M, Cavazza M, Breteler MHM, Brandeis D, Bodurka J, Birbaumer N, Bazanova OM, Barth B, Bamidis PD, Auer T, Arns M, Thibault RT. Consensus on the reporting and experimental design of clinical and cognitive-behavioural neurofeedback studies (CRED-nf checklist). Brain Jun 1;143(6):1674-1685, 2020. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa009. PMID: 32176800

Pereira JA, Sepulveda P, Rana M, Montalba C, Tejos C, Torres R, Sitaram R, Ruiz S. Self-Regulation of the Fusiform Face Area in Autism Spectrum: A Feasibility Study With Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback. Front Hum Neurosci Dec 20;13:446, 2019. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00446. PMID: 31920602

Caria A, da Rocha JLD, Gallitto G, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R, Murguialday AR. Brain-Machine Interface Induced Morpho-Functional Remodeling of the Neural Motor System in Severe Chronic Stroke. Neurotherapeutics Dec 4, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s13311-019-00816-2. PMID: 31802435

Sreedharan S, Chandran A, Yanamala VR, Sylaja PN, Kesavadas C, Sitaram R. Self-regulation of language areas using real-time functional MRI in stroke patients with expressive aphasia. Brain Imaging Behav May 14, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s11682-019-00106-7. PMID: 31089955

Sitaram R, Yu T, Halsband U, Vogel D, Müller F, Lang S, Birbaumer N, Kotchoubey B. Spatial characteristics of spontaneous and stimulus-induced individual functional connectivity networks in severe disorders of consciousness. Brain Cogn Nov 27, 2018. pii: S0278-2626(18)30241-0. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.007. PMID: 30502227

Dalboni da Rocha JL, Coutinho G, Bramati I, Moll FT, Sitaram R. Multilevel diffusion tensor imaging classification technique for characterizing neurobehavioral disorders. Brain Imaging Behav Dec 5, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11682-018-0002-2. PMID: 30519999

Sitaram R, Corozo AS, Zurita M, Levican C, Huepe-Artigas D, Mucarquer JA, Ramirez M. Brain–Computer Interfaces and Neurofeedback for Enhancing Human Performance Human Performance Optimization: The Science and Ethics of Enhancing Human Capabilities. Oxford Press, USA. 2018.

Zurita M, Montalba C, Labbé T, Cruz JP, da Rocha JD, Tejos C, Ciampi E, Cárcamo C, Sitaram R, Uribe S. Characterization of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using support vector machine classifications of functional and diffusion MRI data. NeuroImage: Clinical September, 2018. PMID: 30238916

Kajal DS, Braun C, Mellinger J, Sacchet MD, Ruiz S, Fetz E, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R. Learned control of inter-hemispheric connectivity: Effects on bimanual motor performance. Hum Brain Mapp Jun 5, 2017. doi: 10.1002/hbm.23663. PMID:28580720

Kajal DS, Fioravanti C, Elshahabi A, Ruiz S, Sitaram, R, Braun C. Functional dynamics underlying near-threshold perception of facial emotions: magnetoencephalography investigation. bioRxiv 383315.

Zaidi AD, Birbaumer N, Fetz E, Logothetis N, Sitaram R. The hemodynamic initial-dip consists of both volumetric and oxymetric changes correlated to localized spiking activity. bioRxiv 2018.

Zaidi AD, Birbaumer N, Fetz E, Logothetis N, Sitaram R. The timing of hemodynamic changes reliably reflects spiking activity. bioRxiv 2018.

Pammi VSC, Ruiz S, Lee S, Noussair CN, Sitaram R. The Effect of Wealth Shocks on Loss Aversion: Behavior and Neural Correlates. Front Neurosci Apr 27;11:237, 2017. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00237. PMID:28496399

Ebadi A, Dalboni da Rocha JL, Nagaraju DB, Tovar-Moll F, Bramati I, Coutinho G, Sitaram R, Rashidi P. Ensemble Classification of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Based on Complex Graph Measures from Diffusion Tensor Images. Front Neurosci Feb 28;11:56, 2017. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00056. PMID: 28293162

Sitaram R, Ros T, Stoeckel L, Haller S, Scharnowski F, Lewis-Peacock J, Weiskopf N, Blefari ML, Rana M, Oblak E, Birbaumer N, Sulzer J. Closed-loop brain training: the science of neurofeedback. Nat Rev Neurosci Feb;18(2):86-100, 2017. doi: 10.1038/nrn.2016.164. PMID:28003656

Rana M, Varan AQ, Davoudi A, Cohen RA, Sitaram R, Ebner NC. Real-Time fMRI in  Neuroscience Research and Its Use in Studying the Aging Brain. Front Aging Neurosci Oct 18;8:239, 2016. eCollection 2016. Review. PMID: 27803662

Sepulveda P, Sitaram R, Rana M, Montalba C, Tejos C, Ruiz S. How feedback, motor imagery, and reward influence brain self-regulation using real-time fMRI. Hum Brain Mapp Sep;37(9):3153-71, 2016. doi: 10.1002/hbm.23228. PMID:27272616

Robinson N, Zaidi AD, Rana M, Prasad VA, Guan C, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R. Real-Time Subject-Independent Pattern Classification of Overt and Covert Movements from fNIRS Signals. PLoS One Jul 28;11(7):e0159959, 2016. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159959. PMID:27467528

Ruiz S, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R. Editorial: Learned Brain Self-Regulation for Emotional Processing and Attentional Modulation: From Theory to Clinical Applications. Front Behav Neurosci Mar 31;10:62, 2016. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00062. PMID: 27065087

Liew SL, Rana M, Cornelsen S, Fortunato de Barros Filho M, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R, Cohen LG, Soekadar SR. Improving Motor Corticothalamic Communication After Stroke Using Real-Time fMRI Connectivity-Based Neurofeedback. Neurorehabil Neural Repair Dec 14. pii: 1545968315619699, 2015. PMID:26671217

Zaidi AD, Munk MH, Schmidt A, Risueno-Segovia C, Bernard R, Fetz E, Logothetis N, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R. Simultaneous epidural functional near-infrared spectroscopy and cortical electrophysiology as a tool for studying local neurovascular coupling in primates. Neuroimage Oct 15;120:394-9, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.019. PMID: 26169323

Ray AM, Sitaram R, Rana M, Pasqualotto E, Buyukturkoglu K, Guan C, Ang KK, Tejos C, Zamorano F, Aboitiz F, Birbaumer N, Ruiz S. A subject-independent pattern-based Brain-Computer Interface. Front Behav Neurosci Oct 20;9:269, 2015. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00269. PMID:26539089

Buyukturkoglu K, Roettgers H, Sommer J, Rana M, Dietzsch L, Arikan EB, Veit R, Malekshahi R, Kircher T, Birbaumer N, Sitaram R, Ruiz S. Self-Regulation of Anterior Insula with Real-Time fMRI and Its Behavioral Effects in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Feasibility Study. PLoS One Aug 24;10(8):e0135872, 2015. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135872. PMID:26301829

Chandrasekhar Pammi VS, Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh P, Kesavadas C, Rappai Mary P, Seema S, Radhakrishnan A, Sitaram R. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation. Neuroradiol J Apr;28(2):97-105, 2015. doi: 10.1177/1971400915576670. PMID:25923684

Last update: November 2023