The Cytogenetics Shared Resource supports laboratory-based research and conducts various cytogenetic analyses to guide risk-directed cancer therapies. Centralized karyotypic analysis is available for tumor cell lines, xenografts, somatic cell hybrids, and targeted ES cell lines. In addition, genomic or cDNA probes can be used to analyze vertebrate genes within specific tumor-cell samples. State-of-the-art techniques, such as fiber fluorescence in situ hybridization (fiber FISH), are used to identify the specific chromosomal locations of genes and to determine distances between genes. More specialized services include spectral karyotyping, RNA-FISH and studies that combine telomere length analysis and flow cytometry (flow FISH), cellular immunofluorescence, deconvolution microscopy, and FISH to examine the nature of tumor cells and to determine specific responses to therapy.