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Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia Treatment

Also called: mixed lineage acute leukemia, hybrid leukemia, biphenotypic acute leukemia, bilineage acute leukemia

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia is a mixture of 2 forms of leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The term mixed phenotype” means “both types.”

Leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of many bones. It makes blood cells. In leukemia, the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells that do not work correctly. There is no room for healthy cells to develop. As a result, children and teens cannot fight infections well.

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia is rare. It is more common in adults than children. But it can occur at any age. 

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia symptoms

Symptoms of mixed phenotype acute leukemia include:

  • Fever and infections
  • Bruising or bleeding
  • Pale skin
  • Appetite loss
  • Feeling tired
  • Weight loss
  • Swollen liver or spleen

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia diagnosis

Tests and exams to diagnose mixed phenotype acute leukemia may include:

  • Physical exam and health history
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
  • Complete blood count and other blood tests
  • X-ray
  • Lumbar puncture

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia treatment

Treatment has 2 phases: induction and post-remission

  • Induction: This phase aims to kill all of the leukemia cells in the body. Your child may stay in or near the hospital for several weeks after treatment. This time allows your child to recover from the treatment and avoid infections. 
  • Post-remission: Treatment aims to kill remaining cancer cells. Treatment may include more chemotherapy or stem cell (bone marrow) transplant.

Four types of treatment may be used during these phases:

  • Chemotherapy (“chemo”) 
  • Stem cell (bone marrow) transplant
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted therapy

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia prognosis

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia can be hard to treat because grows quickly and has features of both acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.

The survival rate for mixed phenotype acute leukemia ranges from 60–85%.  

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia care at St. Jude 

  • St. Jude leukemia studies have led the way the world treats childhood leukemia. 
  • St. Jude offers a dedicated team of specialists to meet the needs of children with cancer, including:
    • Surgeons, doctors, and nurses who treat this cancer
    • Doctors who specialize in radiation therapy and pathology (making a diagnosis by looking at tumor tissue under the microscope)
    • Experts in diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine
    • Genetic counselors
    • Clinical dietitians
    • Child life specialists
    • Psychologists
    • Researchers and scientists
  • We are consistently ranked among the best childhood cancer centers in the nation by US News & World Report. 
  • At St. Jude, we have created an environment where children can be children and families can be together. 
  • We lead more clinical trials for childhood cancer than any other hospital in the U.S.  
  • St. Jude is the only National Cancer Institute–designated Comprehensive Cancer Center just for children. A Comprehensive Cancer Center meets rigorous standards for research that develops new and better approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer. 
  • The nurse-to-patient ratio at St. Jude is about 1:3 in hematology and oncology and 1:1 in the Intensive Care Unit. 
  • Patients may be able to get expert, compassionate care and treatment closer to their homes through the St. Jude  Affiliate Program. 

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia clinical trials

St. Jude offers clinical trials and cancer research studies for children, teens, and young adults for mixed phenotype acute leukemia. Learn more about clinical research at St. Jude.

There are no open clinical trials for mixed phenotype acute leukemia at this time.

Browse open clinical trials

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Seeking treatment at St. Jude

Patients accepted to St. Jude must have a disease we treat and must be referred by a physician or other qualified medical professional. We accept most patients based on their ability to enroll in an open clinical trial.

How to seek treatment

Contact the Physician / Patient Referral Office

Call: 1-888-226-4343 (toll-free) or 901-595-4055 (local)  | Fax: 901-595-4011 | Email: | 24-hour pager: 1-800-349-4334


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